Automatic term extraction (ATE) is a task which, despite receiving plenty of research attention over the past decades, remains very challenging. While terms are generally defined as “lexical items that represent concepts of a domain” (Kageura, Kyo & Marshman, Elizabeth, 2019), there appears to be a lack of agreement about the fundamental nature of terms. Since ATE is supposed to automatically identify terms from specialised text, the absence of a consensus about the basic characteristics of terms is problematic. The disagreement covers both practical aspects, such as term length and part-of-speech (POS) pattern, and theoretical considerations about the difference between words (or collocations/phrases) and terms. This poses great difficulties for all aspects of ATE, from data collection (1), to extraction methodology (2), to evaluation (3).
Data collection (term annotation) (1) is time- and effort-consuming, inter-annotator agreement is notoriously low and there is no consensus about an annotation protocol. This leads to a scarcity in available resources. Moreover, it means that the few available datasets are difficult to combine and compare, and often cover only a single language and domain. Two of the most used annotated datasets are GENIA (Kim, Ohta, Tateisi, & Tsujii, 2003), a collection of 2000 abstracts from the MEDLINE database in the domain of biomedicine and the ACL-RD-TEC 2.0 (Qasemizadeh & Schumann, 2016), which contains 300 annotated abstracts from the ACL Anthology Reference Corpus. Both are in English. There are other (smaller) examples as well (Bernier-Colborne, 2012; Daille, 2012; Hätty, Tannert, & Heid, 2017; Schumann & Fischer, 2016), but the fact remains that there are only few large annotated resources available for the task and they are usually monolingual and cover only a single domain. Since term characteristics, and therefore also ATE performance, can vary greatly between languages and domains, this is a serious drawback.
The second problem caused by the lack of consensus about the nature of terms concerns ATE methodologies (2), more specifically: which terms tools are designed to extract. As discussed, there is no agreement about features such as term length and POS- pattern. This means that some tools extract only single-word terms (Amjadian, Inkpen, Paribakht, & Faez, 2016; Conrado, Pardo, & Rezende, 2013; Hätty & Schulte im Walde, 2018; Nokel, Michael, Bolshakova, E.i., & Loukachevitch, Natalia, 2012), others extract only multi-word terms (Azé, Roche, Kodratoff, & Sebag, 2005; Karan, Snajder, & Dalbelo Basic, Bojana, 2012; Loukachevitch, 2012; Patry & Langlais, 2005), and still others extract both, often with different upper limits to the term length, with maximum term length ranging from bigrams (Loukachevitch & Nokel, 2013; Vivaldi & Rodríguez, 2001), to no restrictions at all (Kucza, Niehues, Zenkel, Waibel, & Stüker, 2018; Rigouts Terryn, Drouin, Hoste, & Lefever, 2019), and everything in between. A similar trend can be seen regarding POS-patterns. Research often focuses only on nouns and noun phrases. Some include verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Others don’t use any restrictions, for example those that consider all n-grams potential term candidates (Wang, Liu, & McDonald, 2016). Still others obtain POS-patterns from annotated data (Hätty, Dorna, & Schulte im Walde, 2017; Patry & Langlais, 2005; Rigouts Terryn, Drouin, et al., 2019). There are also those who focus only on very specific patterns, such as only single-word compound terms (Hätty & Schulte im Walde, 2018) or noun+noun terms (Azé et al., 2005). These decisions regarding term length and POS are often motivated, not by a belief that all terms conform to these limitations, but rather because of the difficulties created by not posing any such restrictions, both in terms of the explosion of (false) term candidates and the added effort to create and evaluate the data.
This is related to a different problem in ATE, which is also linked to evaluation (3), namely the fact that most tools are particularly bad at extracting infrequent terms. Many tools discard all terms below a certain frequency threshold (Conrado et al., 2013; Ljubešić, Erjavec, & Fišer, 2018; Ramisch, Villavicencio, & Boitet, 2010b). While some have experimented with frequency thresholds (Drouin, 2003; Ramisch, Villavicencio, & Boitet, 2010a), rare terms remain difficult to find. This is mostly due to the fact that ATE often relies heavily on frequency-based termhood and unithood metrics (Kageura & Umino, 1996), which fail to detect rare terms. This is especially problematic, since one of the main applications of ATE is to efficiently keep up with terminology, so to also detect new or rare terms, which do not already appear in existing lexicons (Kageura, Kyo & Marshman, Elizabeth, 2019). Therefore, any evaluation that does not take into account these infrequent terms, does not necessarily represent the potential usefulness of the ATE in a real-world setting. All of the previously mentioned problems also make evaluation extremely challenging. The most common evaluation metrics for ATE are precision (how many of the extracted term candidates are true terms), recall (how many of the true terms were extracted) and f-score (the weighted average of the two). While most research does report precision, the calculation of recall and f-score is not as common, since they require a fully annotated corpus; you need to identify all true terms in a corpus to be able to calculate how many of them the ATE has found. This rarely happens because of the cited problems with term annotation and available datasets. Apart from the evaluation metrics, comparative evaluations are problematic as well. First of all, the lack of diversity in datasets does not allow for many cross-lingual or cross-domain comparisons. Second, the great differences between term definitions used in the research does not promote fair and transparent comparisons. For instance, it would not be fair to compare a system with no limits on term length, term POS-pattern, or term frequency, to one with restrictions for all of those. Finally, even using reported precision scores is not always informative, because of the varying strictness used in calculating the score, e.g. counting partial matches as correct. Another proposed alternative is a more user- and application-oriented evaluation, but this comes with its own set of problems, such as measuring the impact of ATE on the task (Mustafa El Hadi, Timimi, & Dabbadie, 2004; Mustafa El Hadi et al., 2006; Nazarenko & Zargayouna, 2009).
In conclusion, despite the amount of research available on the subject, there is still surprisingly little consensus about ATE. This shared task is meant to address some of the major concerns. It introduces a dataset that covers three languages and four domains, manually annotated with four different term labels. This allows participants to train and test their systems on diverse and detailed data. Moreover, all participants get relevant information about the types of terms their system is supposed to find from the provided training/development data and all systems are evaluated identically, on the same test data. Thus, with this dataset, all participant systems can be fairly and transparently evaluated. The aim of this shared task is both to introduce a valuable new resource and to obtain a detailed overview of the current state-of-the-art. It is meant to identify the strengths and weaknesses of ATE and to inspire new ideas in the field.
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